Basic Metabolic Panel

Na^{+}, K^{+}, Cl^{-}, CO2, Ca++, glucose , creatinine, BUN,

"ALL the major cats and anions, plus calcium then BCG!!!

Comprehensive Metabolic panel

The basic plus: albumin, total protein, ALP, AST, bilirubin

Electrolyte panel

only Na, K, Cl, CO2

Liver/ Hepatic Function Panel

albumin, ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin total and direct, and total protein

Lipid Panel

Total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, Trigs

Renal function panel

Na+, K+, Ca++, CO2, phosphate,

albumin, BUN, creatinine, glucose,

What is the Anion Gap? when does it increase?

the diff btw unmeasured anions and measured cations; Increases in: renal failure, DKA, lactic acidosis, methanol/ethanol/ethylene glycol or salicylate poisoning (common examples)

Give two formulas for anion gap calculation

(Na^{+} + K^{+}) - (Cl ^{-}+ HCO3^{-})

or

Na - (Cl^{-}+ HCO3^{-})

normal anion gap range

longer formula that includes Potassium, 10 to 20;

Shorter formula, 7 to 16

How is a w/w percent solution calculated? w/v? v/v?

for w/v: use g/ 100g

for w/v: g/100mL

for v/v: ml/100mL

what is molarity?

moles per liter, for concentration of a substance in solution

what is the formula for normality?

M x n where M is moles, and n is number of either H+ or OH- units

i.e. : 1.4 M H2SO4, there are 2 H+ that can protonate the solution, so 1.4 x 2 = 2.8 N